“指挥家是Balenciaga,我们其他人都只是音乐家”

Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908 – 2004) Cristóbal Balenciaga at work, Paris, 1968 © Henri Cartier-Bresson/ Magnum Photos

Cristóbal Balenciaga Eizaguirre ( January 21, 1895 – March 23, 1972 ) was a Spanish Basque fashion designer and the founder of the Balenciaga fashion house. He had a reputation as a couturier of uncompromising standards and was referred to as “the master of us all” by Christian Dior and as “the only couturier in the truest sense of the word” by Coco Chanel, who continued, “The others are simply fashion designers“. He continues to be revered as the supreme deity of the European salons. On the day of his death, in 1972, Women’s Wear Daily ran the headline “The king is dead” ( no one in the fashion world had any doubt as to whom it referred ).

Irving Penn (1917 – 2009) Lisa Fonssagrives-Pennwearing coat by Cristóbal Balenciaga, Paris, 1950 © Condé Nast / IrvingPenn Foundation

Cristóbal Balenciaga 是西班牙籍的著名时装设计师,他在1919年开启了 Balenciaga(巴黎世家)的时装帝国。这位以有着不可妥协的高标准著称的设计师,也被 Christian Dior 称作 “我们所有人的大师”,并形容 “高级定制就像一个管弦乐队,指挥家是Balenciaga,我们其他人都只是音乐家,需要跟随他所指引的方向。” 连CocoChanel也赞美他说“用我最真实的语言形容,他是唯一的裁缝加设计师,而其他人只能是简单的时尚设计师而已”。在Balenciaga 去世的1972年,Women’s Wear Daily 的头条是 “时尚之王已离去”,彼时,时尚界没有人不知道这位时尚之王指的是谁。

This exhibition reveals what made Balenciaga’s work so exceptional and how it continues to shape fashion in couture and on the high street-today. Drawing on theV&A’s extensive collection of Balenciaga from the 1950s and 60s, the displays on the lower floor explore his craftsmanship, his workrooms and the experience of being a client. The upper floor looks at Balenciaga’s impact on later generations of fashion designers, those with whom he worked closely and those working with the same tradition today.

Cecil Beaton (1904– 1980) Eveningdress, Cristóbal Balenciaga, Paris, 1962 Photograph,1971 ©Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s

这次 Balenciaga 在伦敦V&A博物馆展示了为什么巴黎世家的作品如此卓越和它是如何持续的塑造着时尚的世界,不论是在高级定制上还是今天的高街。从1950-60年代的作品开始,一楼展示了Balenciaga的工艺,工作室和他的重要客户们,比如Queen Fabiola of Belgium(比利时皇后), Grace Kelly (摩洛哥王妃)以及时尚精 Mona von Bismarck和 Gloria Guinness。二楼则是 Balenciaga 对后代设计师们的影响,比如 Oscar de la Renta, André Courrèges, 和 Hubertde Givenchy。

Hiro(b. 1930) AlbertaTiburzi in ‘envelope’ dress by Cristóbal Balenciaga, Harper’s Bazaar, June 1967 ©Hiro 1967

Working with Fabric

Most designers start with a sketch and then seek out a material. Balenciaga began with the fabrics and designed around them. ‘It is the fabric that decides,’ he said. He revels in the variety and quality of fabrics available in Paris and forged close working relationships with the many suppliers of luxury textiles, embellishments and accessories. 

Mark Shaw (1921 – 1969) Model wearing Balenciaga orange coat as I. Magnin buyers inspect a dinner outfit in the background, Paris, 1954 ©Mark Shaw / mptvimages.com 

大部分设计师从绘制草图开始,然后才去寻找合适的面料。Balenciaga 则是用面料直接开始设计。他说“面料决定一切”。他在巴黎寻找各式各样的高质量面料并且和很多奢侈纺织,饰品厂商有着密切的联系。

Bolero jacket,velvet with felt and velvet appliqué and beading, Balenciaga for EISA, Spain,1947 ©Museo Cristóbal Balenciaga

Lace

Balenciaga was known for his use of lace, employing it decoratively and, as here for entire garments. He used lace in both evening wear and more unusually, daywear.

巴黎世家以蕾丝著名,他会用蕾丝做装饰或是做一整件服装,晚礼服或是日常服饰。这是一件可当日常穿着又可做晚礼服的连衣裙,非常简单的剪裁,但突出的蕾丝花朵就是点睛之笔,而且蕾丝出自瑞士知名厂商 Brivet。

在很多 Balenciaga 设计中都有郁金香式裙子,裙子像是几片郁金香花瓣,而后背那大大的蝴蝶结设计又使人联想到日本的和服。透过X光我们也可以看到,裙子内部的紧身胸衣设计确保了服装的修身。优雅,精致,迷人。

 X-ray photograph of evening dress, silk taffeta, Cristóbal Balenciaga, Paris, 1955 X-ray by Nick Veasey, 2016  ©Nick Veasey

Craftsmanship & Perfectionism

Balenciaga was a true craftsman. He was involved in every element of creating a collection and demanded high standards. The smallest mistake might cause a design to be pulled apart and begun again. ‘He fitted each model himself; he chose each button, each colour for the lining. He didn’t leave it to anyone: everything was done with detailed precision.’ - Emanuel Ungaro, former apprentice at Balenciaga.

Balenciaga是一个真正的匠人,也是一位完美主义者。他会亲自参与到新一季作品的每一个步骤中去,并有着非常高的标准。因为他知道即使是一个最小的错误都有可能使得整个设计重来。据一位巴黎世家的正式员工描述道 “他会亲自给他的模特们试装,大到颜色,小到纽扣都是他亲自挑选。他很注重细节,因为从不会给任何其他人做这些,每一件事都要很精准”。

能师出高徒,后来纪梵希也深深的受了 Balenciaga 完美主义的影响,把对设计的完全把控和注重细节这两点发挥的淋漓尽致。

 Cecil Beaton (1904– 1980) Flamenco-style evening dress, Cristóbal Balenciaga, Paris, 1961 Photograph, 1971 ©Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s

Embellishment and embroidery

想更直观感受巴黎世家制作工艺?

可拉到最后观看视频

如何把下图的fancy dress用手工制作完成。

 

Statement Hats

Balenciaga’s hats are an integral part of his fashion,’ reported the French fashion review Jardindes modes in 1961.

帽子是巴黎世家设计中不可缺少的一部分”,在1961年的《法国时尚评论》中 Jardin 如是说。很多设计师会把帽子系列外包给其他工厂,而 Balenciaga 在巴黎就有两个帽子工作室,而其工艺又属于最精致最巧斧神功的一批,因此在1950-60年代,巴黎世家的帽子销量以惊人的速度增长。V&A也展出了其帽子系列。

Spiral hat, silk,Balenciaga for EISA, Spain, 1962 © Victoria andAlbert Museum, London

而在当时的时尚杂志中,我们也可以感受到那个年代女人们对帽子的迷恋。。。

 Salon shows

The parade of new designs was a serious affair with no music, and lasted up to an hour and a half. Balenciaga chose unconventional models whom he trained himself. They walked in a ‘haughty trance’, according to one fashion editor, avoiding eye contact with their audience. Balenciaga remained behind a curtain. He refused to give his designs names, unlike other designers, and would not bow at the end of the show, preferring the clothes to speak for themselves. 

Balenciaga新作品的沙龙秀,一般会持续一个半小时左右,但没有背景音乐。“他只选择自己训练过的非传统式模特,一个个都必须是傲娇脸,和观众也没有眼神接触”一个时尚编辑说道。Balenciaga总是躲在窗帘后面,他不像其他设计师,拒绝给自己的设计取名字,而且从不会在秀结束后出来鞠躬,他倾向于让自己的服装为自己说话。也许有才的人都是怪咖,也许有才就有本事想不做什么就不做什么。。。

Dress, Oscar de laRenta, New York, Spring / Summer 2015 ready-to-wear, look 37 ©Catwalking

The Clients

Balenciaga’s couture clients were among the best-dressed and wealthiest women in the world. They chose their new clothes in Paris seasonally and had them made to measure.

巴黎世家高定的客户都是全世界最富有而且最会穿衣的女性,她们每季都在巴黎挑选量身定制的新衣。客户群中除了一些公主王妃总统夫人外,一些时装精也是足以吸引眼球。例如 Gloria Guinness。她在1959-1963年间连续5年入选在“International Best Dressed List”(国际最会穿衣名单)里,而且在1963-1971年间是 Harper’s Bazaar 杂志的撰稿人。她被誉为是 Balenciaga 的缪斯们中的一个,而且是巴黎世家极为忠实且有眼光的客户。

有趣的是,Balenciaga 对于自己的服装有着很严格的穿戴指引,比如上图中的这顶经典的Pillbox 帽子,他希望他的顾客们把帽子戴在很前面,而自信又有着自己品味的 Gloria Guinness,却把帽子戴在了耳后。这也是为什么 Gloria Guinness会成为一个时代的时尚Icon。有自己的想法,不随波逐流,才能成为时尚的引领者。

Evening mini-dress,metal wire and plastic pailettes, Paco Rabanne, Paris, 1967 © Victoria andAlbert Museum, London

She gave an enormous number of items to Victoria & Albert Museum from Cristóbal Balenciaga, Christian Dior, Yves Saint Laurent, André Courrèges, Antonio del Castillo, Hubert de Givenchy, Hellstern and Jeanne Lafaurie. Among the seventeen outfits, twelve hats and pairs of shoes that she donated were a 1948 Balenciaga evening gown of organdie with flock flowers, an evening gown from 1965, a 1949 hand-painted evening gown by Marcelle Chaumont and a 1950s evening gown by Jeanne Lafaurie, the only dress by that designer in the collection of Victoria & Albert Museum.

她也捐献了很多名牌服饰给V&A博物馆,包括Balenciaga,Dior,YSL,Givenchy等。后来在1968年 Balenciaga 关闭了自己的店铺后,也把 Gloria Guinness 介绍了给了自己的徒弟纪梵希。他不仅在经济上帮助了纪梵希建立自己的品牌,并且教会了纪梵希如何忠诚,友善的正确对待顾客。

Gloria Guinness 穿着 Givenchy 的晚礼服,1961年

 EISA

A Balenciaga design could be bought more cheaply at one of his branches of Eisa in Spain. One journalist described Eisa as ‘real down-to-earth couture’ and the Spanish house attracted an ‘in the know’ international clientele.

不得不提的是,Balenciaga其实还有一个副线西班牙品牌Eisa,可能现在知道的人已经不多,但在50-60年代如果 Balenciaga 的巴黎沙龙秀上的新衣被定完,还有一个办法能买到巴黎世家的设计,那就是在Eisa,这个品牌没有巴黎世家那么昂贵。因为Eisa的员工会去参加巴黎的Balenciaga时装秀,然后选择一些款式在西班牙生产,因此生产的费用比在巴黎减少了一半。一位记者也形容Eisa是“一个真正接地气的高定”。

后来很出名的 Oscar  De La Renta 也曾在 Eisa 做过学徒。他在纽约创建了自己的同名品牌服饰就拥有着同样的高标准,而且受 Balenciaga 的影响,他的很多作品里花朵的团和佛拉明戈褶皱也同样频繁的出现。仙气逼人。。。

‘Elegance is a discipine’

Oscar  De La Renta

各路大师赞美Balenciaga的话语也使得整个展览有了一种主旋律的感觉

“I don’t think even the Bible has taught me as much as Balenciaga” -Hubertde Givenchy

纪梵希说:“我不觉得圣经教会我的比 Balenciaga 多。” 

“Balenciaga worked like an architect…he was really cutting new forms. ”– Oscar De La Renta. “Balenciaga 像一个建筑师,他真正剪裁出了新的篇章。”-Oscar De La Renta.

“I think the masters of the 60s were amazing,” says Cypriot-born Chalayan. “Like oleBalenciaga…in a way we’re just… regurgitating what they’ve just done.” 塞浦路斯设计师 Chalayan 说“我认为60年代的大师最令人赞叹,就像以前的Balenciaga,而现在的我们…只不过是复制他们所创造的而已”。

La Tulipe’ evening dress, gazar, Balenciaga for EISA, Spain, 1965 Made for Ava Gardner © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

是啊,在这个全民快时尚的时代,上世纪纯手工的定制行业才显得尤为可贵。。。当然,我们欣赏一下也就算了,至于有几个人能负担得起高级定制的价格,这个就另当别论了。 Anyway,在伦敦想要膜拜时尚大师作品的童鞋们有福啦,这个展览在 V&A 会持续到2018年2月18日,抓紧来偶遇伦敦时尚圈最欢型的群体吧!

 

/展览信息/

Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion

展览时间:Now – 18 February 2018

展览地点:Victoria and Albert Museum

展览链接:https://www.vam.ac.uk/exhibitions/balenciaga-shaping-fashion

展览价格:不贵。

展览推荐指数:★★★☆☆

Author / 作者 YINGTONG CHUNG

感谢维多利亚阿尔伯特博物馆(V&A) 导览及供图